2G Networks

Planning of 2G (GSM) networks


Figure: Max. received power in a GSM900 downlink in a dense city.
Cellular TDMA networks like GSM require network planning because of the frequency reuse and the requirement of sufficient co-channel interference at each mobile location. Accurate propagation models are therefore required for a detailed analysis of the scenario.

Network Planning: Determination of Coverage and Link Quality

To determine the received power in downlink, the predicted path loss is subtracted from the base stations's output power (incl. antenna gain/pattern). Optionally several losses (cables,...) can be defined and are added to the predicted path loss values (if applicabale).

SNIR targets must be fulfilled in each receiver to obtain a good signal quality (low BER). To determine the SNIR, WinProp superposes

  • thermal noise (depending on the bandwidth of the channel)
  • CCI (co-channel interference (from other transmitters radiating on the same carrier frequency)).
  • ACI (adjacent channel interference (from other transmitters radiating on the adjacent carrier frequency)).

The user can display all locations where the SNIR is sufficient for a good reception of the signal and the user can visualize all areas where the signal quality is reduced because of the low or even negative SNIR.

WinProp can model an arbitrary number of types of mobile stations (e.g. handsets, notebooks, vehicular terminals,...) and all of them with their individual SNIR targets, noise figures, general losses, fast fading margins,.....The mix of mobile stations (e.g. 50% handsets, 30% vehicular, 20% notebooks) can be defined as well by the user.

Of course,for multi service analysis (e.g. speech and data with different SNIR targets and capabilities of the user terminal) individual outputs are computed for each service. During the planning process the user can already analyze at which location which service is available.

For each service the target SNIR as well as the min. required signal level can be defined individually (including different values for up- and downlink and different types of mobile stations with different transceiver capabilities).


Network Planning: Requirements


The propaagtion models in WinProp can handle many different types of databases and scenarios depending on the environment to be analyzed. Further information concerning the databases can be found on the database page.

Antenna Patterns
Antenna patterns can be used either in 2x2D or 3D pattern mode. Many different file fornmats are supported. Further information can be found on the antenna page. Of course also the influence of the masts and walls where the antennas are mounted can be considered with the MASC extension.


Path Loss Predictions
All propagation models of WinProp can be used for the planning of TDMA network. The predicted path loss is used for uplink and downlink (reciprocity).

Brochure: 2G/2.5G Network Planning Tool
Read more about  GPRS/EDGE (2.5G) network planning.
Read an example of a GSM network planning
Read more about the Network Planning Modules in WinProp

Best Server
(Cell Layout)




Features of the 2G (GSM) module at a glance:

  • Coverage analysis based on accurate propagation models
  • Consideration of downlink and uplink
  • CoChannel Interference anaylsis
  • Coverage analysis (incl. Fast Fading margin)
  • Capacity estimation
  • Required Tx power in up- and downlink 
  • Multi-Service concept allows user-defined services   
  • Easy handling of the databases  

Demo Project 

All possible results to be obtained with the 2G network module can be seen on the sample project page.


Brochure about 2G and 2.5G 

Radio Network Planning with WinProp.